Feedback is not…
- necessarily a reinforcement, because it can be accepted, modified, or rejected. By itself, feedback may not have the power to initiate further action by the student. (Hattie and Timperley 83)
- the only answer … although it is a powerful one (Hattie and Timperley 105).
- “the information with which a learner can confirm, add to, overwrite, tune, or restructure information in memory”(Hattie and Timperley 82).
- information given by a person who is considering aspects of a student’s performance and understanding, and it occurs after the instruction of certain knowledge and skills. (Hattie and Timperley 102)
- targeted at students at the appropriate level to increase their current level of understanding. (Hattie and Timperley 86)
- more effective than providing grades, because even though grades can increase involvement, they do not improve the student’s performance (Hattie and Timperley 92).
- a “richly complex, highly context-dependent, and widely varied in method, style, and focus both within and across classrooms”(Anson 361).
- often performed in a personal domain between teacher and student (Anson 374).
- the single most important influence in making the classroom a safe place to write (Gilbert 50).
Feedback needs to be…
- a process of learning that fills a gap between what is understood and what is aimed to be understood (Hattie and Timperley 81).
- addressed to the context being learned(Hattie and Timperley 83).
- “aimed to move students from task to processing and then from processing to regulation” (Hattie and Timperley 91).
- Combined with effective instruction in the classroom so that it can enhancing learning, and it needs to be built on something. (Hattie and Timperly 105)
Types of Written Feedback/Examples
- Praise - “Good!
- Approval - “I like…
- Observations - “I see…”
- Human responses - “I enjoyed…”
- Neutral descriptions of the text - “I noticed…”
- Questions - “Can you…” “Did you…”
- Suggestions - “Try to…”
- Advice - “Watch out for…”, “Read and fix…”
- Negative comments - “Isn’t working” “Confusing” “I don’t understand” Awk”
- Corrected spelling, pointed out problems, underlining, remarks in margins
Feedback and Basic Writing: Annotated Bibliography\\\\