What is peer feedback?
A little history
Peer response has its definable roots in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries according to Anne Ruggles Gere’s book Writing Groups: History, Theory, and Implications.
This book traces the history of peer response from its origins in the late nineteenth century and through the twentieth century (Ching 303). According to Gere’s book there are two origins of peer feedback:
- from inside the academy—literary societies/writers’ clubs
- outside the academy—self-improvement groups.
From literary society→ writers’ club→ Classroom workshop
Peer feedback began outside of the classroom and evolved into a teaching technique because of the value of collaborative work.
What is it?
Students interact as members of a community in peer response groups, analyzing and critiquing the work of their peers in a collaborative manner
In order for peer feedback sessions to be successful, students need to have confidence in the knowledge of their peers to accomplish the editing task. Confidence in peer’s knowledge is suspect because students are aware of all being designated as basic writers, and therefore underprepared (Grobman 53).
Students giving marks or grades to each other based on a specific set of relevant criteria (N.F. Lieu and D. Carles 280)
“there is so much about peer response we need to know if we want to use it successfully in our classes, including power dynamics, culture, writing history, and academic norms” (Fernsten 40).
Content of peer feedback will depend on these factors (Dünnebier 292):
- Knowledge on task constraints-providing information on task rules, task constraints, requirements
- Knowledge about concepts- providing information on conceptual knowledge
- Knowledge about mistakes- providing information about errors and mistakes
- Knowledge on how to proceed- know-how, providing information on procedural knowledge
Feedback and Basic Writing: Annotated Bibliography