Returning Adult Students and Writing
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---. “Returning Adults to the Mainstream: Toward a Curriculum for Diverse Student Writers.” Mainstreaming Basic Writers: Politics and Pedagogies of Access, Geraldine McNenny and Sallyanne Fitzgerald, Editors; Lawrence Erlbaum, 2001. Reprinted in Teaching Developmental Writing: Background Readings, 2nd edition/2004 and 3rd edition/2007 by Susan Naomi Bernstein. Bedford St. Martin’s Press.
---. “Something of Great Constancy: Storytelling, Story Writing, and Academic Literacy,” Attending to the Margins: Writing, Researching, and Teaching on The Front Lines, Valerie Balester and Michelle Hall Kells, editors, Heinemann, 1999.
---. “Urban Literacies and The Ethnographic Process: Composing Community at the Center for Worker Education.” In CityComp: Identities, Spaces,Practices, Cynthia Ryan and Bruce McComiskey, Editors, SUNY Press, 2003.
Goulston, Wendy. “Women Writing.” Teaching of Writing: Pedagogy, Gender and Equity. Ed. Cynthia L. Caywood and Gillian R. Overling. Albany: SUNY Press, 1987. 19–29.
Greenwood, C.M. “’It’s Scary at First’: Reentry Women in College Composition Classes.” Teaching English in the Two Year College 17 (1990): 133–142.
Gregg, Noel, Susan A. Sigalas, and Cheri Hoy. “Sense of Audience and the Adult Writer: A Study across Competence Levels.” Reading and Writing 8 (1996): 121.
Halio, Marcia Peoples. “Teaching in Our Pajamas: Negotiating with Adult Learners in Online Distance Writing Courses.” College Teaching 52.2 (2004): 58.
Hall Kells, Michelle and Valerie Balster, Eds. Attending to the Margins, Researching and Teaching on the Front Lines. Portsmouth: Boynton/Cook, 1999.
Hansman, Catherine A. and Arthur L. Wilson. “Teaching Writing in Community Colleges: A Situated View of How Adults Learn to Write in Computer-Based Writing Classrooms.” Community College Review 26.1 (1998): 21–42. WilsonWeb. 17 March 2006.
Hashimoto, Irvin Y. “Adult Learning and Composition Instruction.” Journal of Basic Writing 4.1 (1985): 55–67.
Himley, Margaret, et al. “Answering the World: Adult Literacy and Co-Authoring.” Written Communication 13.2 (1996): 163.
Hoadley-Maidment, Elizabeth. “From Personal Experience to Reflective Practitioner: Academic Literacies and Professional Education.” Student Writing in Higher Education: New Contexts. Eds. Mary R. Lea and Barry Stierer. Philadelphia: The Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press, 2000. 165–78.
Horning, Alice S. “The Climate of Fear in the Teaching of Writing.” Teaching of Writing: Pedagogy, Gender and Equity. Albany: SUNY Press, 1987. 65–79.
Hout, Brian, Beth Stroble, and Charles Bazerman, eds. Multiple Literacies for the 21st Century. Cresskill: Hampton Press, Inc.: 2004.
Howard, Ursula. “History of Writing in the Community.” Handbook of Research on Writing: History, Society, School, Individual, Text. Ed. Charles Bazerman. NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2008. 237–54.
Jackman, Mary Kay. “When the Personal Becomes Professional: Stories from Reentry Adult Women Learners about Family, Work, and School.” Composition Studies. 27.2 (1999): 53–67.
Kalister, Rose Ann. “The Adult Learner in the Writing Center: Teaching Techniques.” Annual Meeting of the Writing Centers Association Clarion, PA, 1981.
Kamler, Barbara. “Is Personal Writing Empowering? Developing Critical Writing Practices in Adult Education.” Open Letter 6.1 (1995): 5–16.
Karpiak, Irene. “Writing Our Life: Adult Learning and Teaching through Autobiography.” Canadian Journal of University Continuing Education 26.1 (2000): 31–50.
Kerka, Sandra. “Journal Writing and Adult Learning.” ERIC Digest No. 174 (1996): 1–7. ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Career and Vocational Education Columbus OH. ED399413. 17 Mar. 2007 Link.
---. “Journal Writing as an Adult Learning Tool.” Practice Application Brief No. 22 (2002) ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Career and Vocational Education Columbus OH. ED470782. 17 Mar. 2007 Link.
Kiskis, Michael. “Adult Learners, Autobiography, and Educational Planning: Reflections on Pedagogy, Andragogy, and Power.” Pedagogy in the Age of Politics: Writing and Reading (in) the Academy. Eds. Patricia A. Sullivan and Donna J. Qualley. Urbana: NCTE, 1994. 56–72.
Kliemann, Susan. “The Reciprocal Relationship of Workplace Culture and Review.” Writing in the Workplace: New Research Perspectives. Ed. Rachel Spilka. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1993. 56–70.
Lea, Mary R. “Academic Literacies and Learning in Higher Education: Constructing Knowledge through Texts and Experience.” Studies in the Education of Adults 30.2 (1998).
Leaker, Cathy, and Heather Ostman. “Composing Knowledge: Writing, Rhetoric, and Reflection in Prior Learning Assessment.” College Composition and Communication 61.4 (2010): 691–717.
Lillis, Theresa M. Student Writing: Access, Regulation, Desire. London: Routledge, 2001.
Lytle, S.L “Living Literacy: Rethinking Development in Adulthood.” Literacy: A Critical Sourcebook. Eds. E. Cushman, E.R. Kintgen, B. M. Kroll, M. Rose. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2001. 376–401.
Mahala, Daniel, and Jody Swilky. “Telling Stories, Speaking Personally: Reconsidering the Place of Lived Experience in Composition.” JAC 16.3 (1996): 363–388.
Marino, Carrie A. “The Student Returns: Challenges of the Returning Student.” Conf. on Coll. Composition and Communication. Phoenix, Az. March 12–15, 1997. ERIC Full Text ED4096567. 17 Mar. 2007 Link.
Mauk, Jonathon. “Location, Location, Location: The “Real” (E)States of Being, Writing, and Thinking in Composition.” College English 65.4 (2003): 368–88.
Meyers, Miriam. “Characteristics of Adult Students’ Writing.” Annual Meeting of the Minnesota Council of Teachers of English. Minneapolis, MN, May 6–7, 1983. ERIC Abstract ED233392. 17 Mar. 2007 Link.
Miritello, Mary. “Teaching Writing to Adults: Examining Assumptions and Revising Expectations for Adult Learners in the Writing Class.” Composition Chronicle: Newsletter for Writing Teachers 9.2 (1996) 6–9.
Morrison, Mary Kay. “‘the Old Lady in the Student Lounge’: Integrating the Adult Female Student into the College Classroom.” Two-Year College English: Essays for a New Century. Ed. Mark Reynolds. Urbana: NCTE, 1994. 26–36.
Mullins, Barbara and Betsy Park. “Faculty Expectations and the Adult Learner: Some Implications for Reference.” The Reference Librarian 69/70 (2000): 381–93.
Navarre Cleary, Michelle. “Keep It Real: A Maxim for Service-Learning in Community Colleges.” Reflections: A Journal of Writing, Service-Learning, and Community Literacy 3.1 (Winter 2003): 55–63.
---. “What WPAs Need to Know to Prepare New Teachers to Work with Adult Students.” Writing Program Administration: Journal of the Council for Writing Program Administrators 32.1 (Fall/Winter 2008).
Navarre Cleary, Michelle, Suzanne Sanders-Betzold, Polly Hoover, Peggy St. John. “Working with Wikis in Writing-Intensive Classes.” Kairos: A Journal of Rhetoric, Technology, and Pedagogy. 14.1 (Fall 2009) <http://kairos.technorhetoric.net/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/WikiResearch/WikiResearch>.
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Oaks, Susan. “Talking to One’s Self: Reproducing Collaborative Writing Strategies in a Composition Course for Adult, Independent, Distance Learners.” Conference on College Composition and Communication. Washington, DC, March 23–25, 1995. ERIC Full Text ED385850. 17 Mar. 2006 Link.
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Tinberg, Howard, and Jean-Paul Nadeau. “The Calderwood Study of First-Semester Community College Writers: What Their Writing Told Us About Themselves, Their Faculty, and Their College.” Conference on College Composition and Communication. San Francisco, 2009.
Uehling, Karen. “Older and Younger Adults Writing Together: A Rich Learning Community.” The Writing Instructor 15.2 (1996): 61–69.
Walden, Phyllis. “Journal Writing: A Tool for Women Developing as Knowers.” New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education 65 (1995): 13.
Wiant, Fredel Marie. “A Study of Collaborative Writing Response Groups and Writing Anxiety among Female Community College Re-Entry Students.” Master’s Thesis. U of Colorado, 1997.
Wylie, Robert W. “Letters from Retirement.” Teaching English in the Two - Year College 27.1 (1999): 91.
Selected Bibliography on Returning Adults
American Council of Higher Education (ACE). Framing New Terrain: Older Adults and Higher Education. Washington, DC: 2007. https://www.acenet.edu/Content/NavigationMenu/ProgramsServices/CLLL/Reinvesting/Reinvestingfinal.pdf (28 May 2008).Beder, H.W., and G.G. Darkenwald. “Differences Between Teaching Adults and Pre-Adults: Some Propositions and Findings.” Adult Education 33 (1982): 142–155.
Belzer, Alisa. “It’s Not Like Normal School’: The Role of Prior Learning Contexts in Adult Learning.’” Adult Education Quarterly 55 (2004): 41–59.
Berker, Ali and Laura Horn. “Work First, Study Second: Adult Undergraduates Who Combine Employment and Postsecondary Enrollment.” National Center for Education Statistics. United States. Department of Education. Washington, DC: 2003. http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2003/2003167.pdf (3 July 2008).
Brookfield, S. D. The Skillful Teacher: On Technique, Trust, and Responsiveness in the Classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006.
---. Understanding and Facilitating Adult Learning: A Comprehensive Analysis of Principles and Effective Practices. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1986.
Brumagim, Alan L. “Using the Experiences of Nontraditional Students in the Classroom.” Journal of Management Education 23 (1999): 444–452.
Castaldi, Theresa M. “Adult Learning: Transferring Skills from the Workplace to the Classroom.” Lifelong Learning: An Omnibus of Practice and Research 12.6 (1989): 17–19.
Castles, Jane. “Persistence and the Adult Learner: Factors Affecting Persistence in Open University Students.” Active Learning in Higher Education July 2004, 5.2, 166–179.
Chao, Ruth and Glenn E. Good. “Nontraditional Students’ Perspectives on College Education: A Qualitative Study.” Journal of College Counseling 7.1 (2004): 5–12.
Chartrand, Judy M. “A Causal Analysis to Predict the Personal and Academic Adjustment of Nontraditional Students.” Journal of Counseling Psychology. Jan. 1990: 65–73.
Cross, Patricia K. Adults as Learners. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1981.
Dill, Patricia and Tracy B. Henley. “Stressors of College: A Comparison of Traditional and Nontraditional Students.” The Journal of Psychology 132.1 (1998): 25–32.
Dzindolet, Mary T. and Lawrence Weinstein. “Attitudes of Traditional and Nontraditional Students Toward Their Classmates of Various Ages.” Psychological Reports. Dec. 1994: 1587–1592.
Edwards, Richard, Ann Hansom, and Peter Raggatt. Eds. Boundaries of Adult Learning: Theory and Practical Strategies. Philadelphia: Research for Better Schools, 1991.
Giczkowski, William. “General Education Applications for Adult Learners: Making Sense of Experience.” Adult Learning. Summer 1998: 30–32.
Jacobs, Jerry A. and Scott Stoner-Eby. “Adults Enrollment and Educational Attainment.” Annals of the American Academic of Political and Social Science. Sept. 1998: 91–108.
Knowles, Malcolm. The Adult Learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2005.
Kolb, David A. Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall PTR, 1984.
Lawler, Patricia. The Keys to Adult Learning: Theory and Practical Strategies. Philadelphia: Research for Better Schools, 1991.
Melichar, Barbara. “Instructors’ Attitudes Toward Nontraditional Students Positive, Study Shows.” Adult Learning Sept/Oct 1994: 27–28.
Merriam, Sharan B. and Rosemary S. Caffarella. Learning in Adulthood: A Comprehensive Guide. Third Edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2007.
Quinnan, Timothy William. Adult Students “At-Risk”: Culture Bias in Higher Education. Westport: Bergin & Garvey, 1997.
Reed, Susan C. and Catherine Marienau. Eds. Linking Adults with Community: Promoting Civic Engagement through Community Based Learning. Spec. issue of New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education 118 (2008).
Richardson, John T.E. and Estelle King. “Adult Students in Higher Education: Burden or Boon?” Journal of Higher Education Jan-Feb 1998:65--.
Rose, Amy. “Moving into the Mainstream: Is There Such a Thing as a Nontraditional Student Anymore?” Adult Learning Sept/Oct 1994: 6, 29.
Shields, Nancy. “The Link Between Student Identity, Attributions, and Self-Esteem Among Adult, Returning Students.” Sociological Perspectives Summer 1995: 261--.
Shmaefsky, Brian R. “Adult Students – 12 Contrasts You Should Consider.” Teaching for Success April 2002: 4.
Smith, Dorace F. A Study of Characteristics that Contribute to Persistence of Adult Commuter Students Who Earn 60 or More Hours of College Credit. Diss. Ball State U, 1999. Ann Arbor, UMI, 1999. 9924372. ProQuest. DePaul U Lib., Chicago, IL. 9 Dec. 2006. http://proquest.com.
Spitzer, Tam A. “Predictors of College Success: A Comparison of Traditional and Nontraditional Age Students.” NASPA Journal 38:1 (2000) 82–98.
Taylor, Kathleen, Catherine Marienau, and Morris Fiddler. Developing Adult Learners: Strategies for Teachers and Trainers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2000.
Selected Bibliography of Useful Sources on Reflective Practice, Portfolio Development, and Prior Learning Assessment from Sonia Feder-Lewis, Saint Mary’s University of Minnesota, firstname.lastname@example.org
Barrett, H. C. (2007). Researching electronic portfolios and learner engagement: The REFLECT initiative. Journal of Adult and Adolescent Literacy, 50(6), 436–449.
A description of a Canadian electronic portfolio project, written by one of the pioneers and experts in the field.
Brady, E. M. (1990). Redeemed from time: Learning through autobiography. Adult Education Quarterly,41(1), 43–52.
Brown, J. O. (2002). Know thyself: The impact of portfolio development on adult learning. Adult Education Quarterly, 52(3), 228–245.
A very interesting study into the impact of creating a portfolios and of reflection on the learning experience, and on the way students perceive their experience. Posits that the act of reflection deepens and reinforces the learning.
Conrad, D. (2008). Building knowledge through portfolio learning in prior learning assessment and recognition. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 92(2), 139–150.
A great overview of the PLA process and theory behind it.
Geerling, F. &Dirkx, J.M. (2003). Adults learning to reflect: A study of the assessment of private learning. Paper presented at 2003 Midwest Research to Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education.
A study of a religiously affiliated college that had a required course for incoming adult students to explore more affective learning though a required reflective life writing course to empower students and assess their ability to learn and write about how life—not professional—experience has contributed to their knowledge.
Mezierow,J. & Associates. (1990). Fostering critical reflection in adulthood: A guide to transformative and emancipator learning. San Francisco: Jossey Bass Publishers.
A core text on reflection, in many settings. The core idea that meaningful learning includes reflection. Provides a framework for describing ways of thinking and ways of categorizing the process of reflection.
Michelson, E. (1997). Multicultural approaches to portfolio development. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, (75), 41–53.
Michelson examines the way in which the traditional portfolio system may be inadequate for non-traditional, non-Western learners, and examines the development of Prior Learning Assessments for an aboriginal college in New Zealand, and a First Nations school in Canada. She suggests that alternative ways of knowing create a need for alternative models for exploring learning.
Taylor, M. (2006). Informal adult learning and everyday literacy practices. Journal of Adult and Adolescent Literacy, 49(6), 500–509.
Thomas, A., Collins, M., & Plett, L. (2001). Dimensions of the experience of Prior Learning Assessment & Recognition. New Approaches to Lifelong Learning OISE/UT.
A study in a series of studies in Canada on the experience of PLAR and its effect on students.
Van Kleef, J. (2007). Strengthening PLAR: Integrating theory and practice in post-secondary education. Journal of Applied Research and Learning, 1(2), Article 5, 1–22.
A theoretical approach to PLA and its implementation.
Wilcox, B.L. (1997). Writing Portfolios: Active vs. Passive. English Journal, 86(6), 34–37.
Short but useful, focusing on the way in which reflection can be incorporated into the process of building a portfolio, and in the ways in which this engagement with one’s work can enhance the learning through the portfolio process.
Yancey, K. B. (2004). Postmodernism, palimpsest, and portfolios: Theoretical issues in the representation of student work. College Composition and Communication, 55(4), 738–761.
Explores how digital portfolios are changing the nature of portfolios and our thinking about the process of reading a portfolio.
Yancey, K.B. & Weiser, I., Eds. (1997). Situating portfolios: Four perspectives. Logan, Utah: Utah State University Press.
A thoughtful collection of essays on portfolios, covering areas of Theory and Power, Pedagogy, Teaching and Professional Development, and Technology. Authors include Peter Elbow, Cynthia Selfe, and Kathleen Blake Yancey.
Zubizarreta, J. (2004a). The learning portfolio: Reflective practice for improving student learning. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing.
Both a theoretical discussion of portfolio development and the need for reflective practice, and a handbook of examples for successfully implementing learning portfolios, this is a very readable and thoughtful guide. Zubizarreta provides a strong grounding in why we should use portfolios with students, and then lets us see the many ways to use them effectively.
Zubizarreta, J. (2004b). The learning portfolio: Reflective practice for improving student learning. Available online at http://teachingcommons.cdl.edu/eportfolio/documents/LearningPortfolio_000.pdf
This is just a brief PowerPoint presentation, based in large part on the book listed above. Included are useful questions for students, tips for teachers, and a very helpful bibliography.
http://electronicportfolios.org/ Dr. Helen Barrett—all things e-portfolios. Dr. Barrett provides a great number of resources on e-portfolios, and about prior learning.